Ethanol production from green waste can be useful in helping solve the current energy crisis, food crisis and climate change. During the bioconversion process, enzymatic hydrolysis, which converts hemicelluloses and celluloses to reducing sugar, was focused on. Hence, the fermentation of reducing sugar to ethanol is more easily carried out once high reducing sugar yield is obtained. The objective of this research was to identify the most effective microbial community in the process of bioconversion of green wastes to reducing sugars. The effectiveness of the best microbial community was further investigated by comparing different pretreatment methods and environmental conditions. Two low-cost pretreatment methods: Organosolv process and Liquid hot-water pretreatment (LHW) were compared to break down the high stability of lignocelluloses biomass. In addition, the temperature, pH value, and initial carbon concentration of aerobic microbial culture medium were adjusted in order to obtain the highest concentration of reducing sugar.
My first journal paper (2011)
The work of 30 hours per week, thanks to Kee Teck, Qi Wei, Prof Wang and Dr Chen in helping this =)
Sabah sovereignty starts from Batu Sapi by-election（沙巴主权由三脚石开始）in Chinese, 10 Nov 2010, Merdekareview. http://www.merdekareview.com/reader_view.php?id=15307
The century flood of Sabah interior division （谈沙巴内陆省世纪大水灾）in Chinese, 17 Feb 2014, Malaysiakini. http://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/254578
The recent civic movement of Sabah（谁说沙巴公民运动落后！？）in Chinese, 24 Oct 2014, Malaysiakini. http://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/278473
Ng B.J.H., Wang J.-Y., Qi W., Chen C.-L., (2011). Optimization and Enhancement of Microbial Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic waste to reducing sugars, NTU CEE Research bulletins, 24, 68-70.
Ng B.J.H., Giannis A., Chang V.W.-C., Stegmann R., and Wang J.-Y. (2012). Modeling decentralized source-separation systems for urban waste management. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 68, 398-402.
Zhang J., Giannis A., Chang V.W.-C., Ng B.J.H., and Wang J.-Y. (2013). Adaptation of urine source separation in tropical cities: Process optimization and odor mitigation. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 63(4), 472-481.
Ng B.J.H., Zhou J., Giannis A., Chang V.W.C., Wang J.-Y. (2014). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Different Domestic Wastewater Streams: Policy Effectiveness in a Tropical Urban Environment. Journal of Environmental Management. 140, 60-68.
Ng B.J.H., Mao Y., Chen C.-L., Rajagopal R.,Wang J.-Y. (2015). Municipal food waste management in Singapore: practices, challenges and recommendations. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. doi: 10.1007/s10163-015-0405-8.