重庆和四川之旅——6月12日至29日

这一次去中国重庆四川)的收获和上次去台湾寻宝所学习到的不分伯仲。我只能说是另一种体验和学习。

12/06(五):

成都下机,再乘搭四个小时的巴士到重庆国际青年旅舍

中国和新加坡
中国和新加坡

13/06(六):

逛旅舍后面的老城区、Central Business District 解放碑,下午与重庆交通大学Green Union的学生交流、再去朝天门、晚上吃自助餐、看重庆市夜景。

China and Singapore
China and Singapore

14/06(日):

早上进行明天教学的彩排、中午去重庆的“民间艺术坊”——洪崖洞、晚上继续筹备明天的活动。

四川省
四川省

15/06(一):

去了梦立的母校——重庆外语学校,收到贵宾式的欢迎。就进行了教学、展览和下午的生态营。

Siichuan province
Siichuan province

16/06(二):

外语学校的B校区办教学、展览和生态营。晚上和校领导请吃慰劳,一共上了18道菜和1道水果。我们都不习惯重庆的麻辣味,还蛮浪费食物的。

成都市
成都市

17/06(三):

早上和重庆大学的学生去看Lien Institute for the Environment (LIFE)桃花溪的净水工程,整个净水地区就像花园一样美,很让人印象深刻。下午去参观重庆三峡博物馆,很令人震撼的水利工程。晚上又和重庆大学的学生和领导去吃重庆火锅,吃得饱饱的。

Chengdu city
Chengdu city

18/06(四):

早上就步入重庆大学古老的校区,正逢他们的开放日,举行展览和很官方的开幕典礼。傍晚就和他们的美女代表(可以问问育豪讨她的MSN,哈哈)游校园。

重庆直辖市
重庆直辖市

19/06(五):

梦立、永祥、Rick和我偷懒,把工作分给子雯、伟鸿、韵如还有Mr OJB,是因应梦立父母的盛情邀请去她家吃午饭,然后就去便宜又好玩的“洋人街”high翻天。晚上还避过了重庆大学校领导和学生的“干杯礼”,受了慈青十戒,不喝酒;可是在那里的传统,不喝酒就是没礼貌,这样的挣扎,碰巧避过了。

Chongqing city
Chongqing city

20/06(六):

原本的庆功宴取消了,早上在旅舍当了宅男,午饭后才去家乐福(Carrefour)走走,再去理发店享受便宜的洗头和按摩服务!晚上就出发去成都,开始我们的R&R (Rest & Recreation)了!

丹巴县和大渡河
丹巴县和大渡河

21/06(日):

开始和导游拉姆还有超强的司机师傅去寻找“蓝色星球上最后的一片净土”。我们的第一站,从成都(火焰山)经过二郎山泸定桥,到丹巴(女儿国),全程10小时车程!

Danba and Dadu river
Danba and Dadu river

22/06(一):

再从丹巴经过塔公草原、为纪念班禅大师而修建的纯金制作的纪念塔及大名鼎鼎的塔公寺,到达“摄影家的天堂”“光和影的世界”新都桥。这时我们已经在海拔3400米、“世界的屋脊青”青藏高原的边上了,看到了雪山!全程8小时车程!

新都桥
新都桥

23/06(二):

新都桥稻城,先后翻越高尔寺山(4412米),经雅砻江畔康巴小山城–雅江县城,剪子弯山(海拔4659米)、卡子拉山(海拔4718米),经世界高城,高原明珠–理塘县(海拔4000米),观毛垭大草原风光,经无量河,翻越传说中龟兔赛跑–兔子山,途经青藏高原最大的古冰川遗址、稻城古冰帽–海子山自然保护区(海拔4500米),抵达最后的香巴拉稻城新都桥—69km—雅江—145km—理塘—146km—稻城(全程约360多公里)(海拔3750米)。全程12小时的车程!

Xinduqiao
Xinduqiao

24/06(三):

经过了几天的行程,大家也累了。早上去日瓦的行程也取消了,换成自由时间。午餐后才出发去“最后的香格里拉亚丁(离太阳最近的地方)风景区。晚上就是我们营火会了。

稻城,旧称稻巴
稻城,旧称稻巴

25/06(四):

早上我们就经历了《消失的地平线》(The Lost Horizon)小说里面的地点(司机师傅终于可以休息了):骑马半个小时上山直接抵达冲古寺,观赏冲古寺风光,然后再海拔4000米以上步行两个小时前往洛绒牛场,朝观仙乃日神山(意为观世音菩萨,海拔6023米),远观夏诺多吉神山(意为金刚手菩萨,海拔5958米),央迈勇神山(意为金文殊菩萨,海拔5958米)。下午四点再出发回稻城。晚上没有去泡温泉,因为实在太累了~

Daocheng, ancient name, Daoba
Daocheng, ancient name, Daoba

26/06(五):

稻城返回新都桥,在这里可远眺7556米的蜀山之王贡嘎山的主峰。稻城—146km—理塘—145km—雅江—69km—新都桥(全程约360多公里),也是12小时的车程。

亚丁风景区
亚丁风景区

27/06(六):

这次回程的路,有点不一样,我们经过“情歌的故乡”康定四川省甘孜自治州的首府),(《康定情歌》里的跑马山就在这里!),再经泸定二郎山、“雨城”雅安、才回到四川省省会成都。晚上去了成都的民间艺术中心锦里吃小食购物。

Yading
Yading

28/06(日):

早上出发去做一件不做,就等于没有去过四川的事——看熊猫!哈哈,成都熊猫研究和繁殖基地,上次“团团圆圆”来台时,我人虽然在台湾,但是那时还没有公开给群众参观,它们太可爱了。。。参观完毕后,就立刻前往成都国际机场了!到新加坡已经是晚上11点多,回NTU不睡到凌晨五点半搭地铁再回去Changi Budget terminal,回亚庇

Continue reading “重庆和四川之旅——6月12日至29日”

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Ini namanya kucing yang “comel”

Kononnya, Universiti Technologi Nanyang mempunyai kepadatan populasi kucing yang paling tinggi di seluruh Singapura. Sebabnya? Pemilik asal kucing-kucing ini tidak bertanggungjawab dan selalu membuang “bayi” mereka di kampus ini yang mempunyai pelajar-pelajar yang berkasih sayang.

Sesetengah kucing di sini berlagak-lagak, ego rupanya dan sangat gemuk sehingga tidak mahu memakan ikan asam yang saya sediakan! Biasanya, kucing suka makan ikan, tapi tidak makan tikus. Mereka hanya suka bermain dengan tikus-tikus yang “comel”. Foto di bawah yang saya ambil pada waktu pagi boleh dijadikan sebagai “saksi”.

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Food waste reduction in Singapore

Doing online research regarding the food waste recycling in South Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Singapore, is one of my major task during the industrial attachment in NEA. I am here to share with you my research result.

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According to the studies from Taiwan, food waste compromises one-third of household waste by weight. But no similar research is done in Singapore. So, we assume that the fact in Taiwan applies in Singapore, due to similar food culture. Besides, in Singapore Packaging Agreement, it shows that packaging waste occupies one-third of household waste.

Therefore, we can deduce that about one-third of residential waste is food waste, another one-third is packaging waste, and the rest one-third is non-packaging waste.

Normally, we can recycle all packaging wastes, if they are clean (free of food waste). So, Singapore has launched National Recycling Programme since 2001 to target on this one-third of packaging. The next step to increase the overall recycling rate, without any doubt, is to target on food waste. That is why Taiwan media describes food waste recycling as “the second revolution of green movement” when Taiwan EPA (Environment Protection Agency) launched this national programme in 2006.

How to increase the recycling rate? It can be done by two ways: first, to increase the recycled food waste through recycling; second, to reduce the total food waste produced by reduce and reuse.

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We can focus on the first approach: how to reduce food waste.

This is the comparison between Singapore and other Asian countries.

Country

Korea (2005)

Japan
(2007)

Taiwan (2008)

Singapore (2008)

Annual Food Waste Generated (ton)

4,755,220

20,000,000

1,899,379

568,000

Daily Food Waste Generated (ton/d)

13,028

54,795

5,190

1,556

Annual Food waste recycled (ton)

4,469,907

4,000,000

691374

68000

Daily Food waste recycled (ton/d)

12,246

10,956

1,889

186

Food waste recycling rate, %

94

20

36

12

Population (million)

48

127

23

5

Daily Food Waste Generated per capita(kg/d/ca)

0.27

0.43

0.23

0.31

Daily Food Waste Recycled per capita(kg/d/ca)

0.26

0.09

0.08

0.04

The food waste generation of Singapore (per day per capita) is the second highest among the four countries and the lowest in food waste recycling.

Why do we waste so much food? I reckon that it may be due to the low food disposal cost. We only waste 2 cents everyday for waste food. 2 cents can be round off to zero in Singapore’s context.

 

In term of 1000kg = S$77 incinerated disposal fee

Year

Cost of food waste wasted (S$ million per year)

Cost of food waste wasted (S$ per day)

Cost of food waste wasted per capita (S$ per ca per year)

Cost of food waste wasted per capita (S$ per ca per day)

1996

82.0

224,671.2

17.8

0.05

1997

83.5

228,890.4

18.2

0.05

1998

84.9

232,645.5

18.5

0.05

1999

83.4

228,574.0

18.1

0.05

2000

83.3

228,194.2

18.1

0.05

2001

38.9

106,557.9

8.5

0.02

2002

38.1

104,361.4

8.3

0.02

2003

39.7

108,664.9

8.6

0.02

2004

38.5

105,479.5

8.4

0.02

2005

38.1

104,424.7

8.3

0.02

2006

38.3

105,057.5

8.3

0.02

2007

39.1

107,103.8

8.5

0.02

2008

38.5

105,479.5

8.4

0.02

But when we convert the incineration fee to the price of rice (as rice is our main food source), the outcome will be totally different.

In term of 1kg of rice = S$1.50

Cost of food waste wasted (S$ million per year)

Cost of food waste wasted (S$ per day)

Cost of food waste wasted per capita (S$ per ca per year)

Cost of food waste wasted per capita (S$ per ca per day)

1,597.5

4,376,712.3

347.3

1.0

1,627.5

4,458,904.1

353.8

1.0

1,654.2

4,532,054.8

359.6

1.0

1,625.3

4,452,739.7

353.3

1.0

1,622.6

4,445,342.5

352.7

1.0

757.7

2,075,802.7

164.7

0.5

742.1

2,033,013.7

161.3

0.4

772.7

2,116,849.3

168.0

0.5

750.0

2,054,794.5

163.0

0.4

742.5

2,034,246.6

161.4

0.4

747.0

2,046,575.3

162.4

0.4

761.6

2,086,438.4

165.6

0.5

750.0

2,054,794.5

163.0

0.4

We waste 40 cents per day per person, 20 times more than the disposal fee.

However, the calculation above is just estimation. Research has to done like what UK did, and the WRAP found out that: in UK, everyone throws one-third of food which they buy! Unbelievable!

lovefoodhatewaste

Food is the gift from the Nature. It is the natural medicine and keeps us healthy. Don’t waste it!